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ASTA CLEANLINESS SPECIFICATION OF WALNUT
Food Chain : Take care of all the components to ensure quality and safety
Food Chain
ASTA CLEANLINESS SPECIFICATION
Walnut Kernels - UNECE Standard DF-02 Concerning the Marketing and Commercial Quality Control
I. DEFINITION OF PRODUCE
This standard applies to walnut kernels from varieties (cultivars) grown from Juglans regia L. 
II. PROVISIONS CONCERNING QUALITY
The purpose of the standard is to define the quality requirements for walnut kernels at the export control stage, after preparation and packaging.
A. Minimum requirements
Standard definitions of terms and defects are listed in the Annex to this document.
(i) In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, walnut kernels must be:
  • sufficiently dry to ensure keeping quality;
  • sound; produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded;
  • firm;
  • sufficiently developed; shrivelled kernels are to be excluded;
  • clean, practically free from any visible foreign matter and from shell;
  • free from insects or mites whatever their stage of development;
  • free from damage caused by pests;
  • free of any rancidity or oily appearance;
  • free from mould;
  • free of abnormal external moisture;
  • free of foreign smell and/or taste.
    The condition of the walnut kernels must be such as to enable them:
  • to withstand transport and handling, and
  • to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination.
(ii) Moisture content
The walnut kernels shall have a moisture content of not greater than 5 per cent.
The moisture content is determined by one of the methods given in Annex II of the Standard Layout - Determination of Moisture content for dry produce (nuts) (http://www.unece.org/trade/agr/info/layout/laydry_e.pdf). The laboratory reference method shall be used in cases of dispute.
B. Classification
Walnut kernels are classified in the three classes as defined below according to their quality and colour.
The official colour chart illustrating the colours allowed will be available after the 49th session of the Specialized Section (21-24 May 2002) from the UNECE Secretariat, Agricultural Standards Unit, Office 432, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
(i) “Extra” Class
The kernels may be designated by a commercial name, provided that the class is also expressed in the marking.
Walnut kernels in this class must be of superior quality, uniformly light-coloured with practically no dark straw and/or lemon-yellow colour and with no dark brown.
They must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type5. They must be practically free from defects with the exception of very slight superficial defects provided that these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality or its presentation in the package.
Commercial type: Walnut kernels in each package are of the similar general type and appearance and/or belong to a mix of varieties officially defined by the producing country.
Scuffing is allowed on:
  • quarters and all pieces
  • halves, provided it covers no more than 10% of the surface area of the skin.
(ii) Class I
The kernels may be designated by a commercial name, provided that the class is also expressed in the marking.
Walnut kernels in this class must be of good quality, of a colour not darker than light brown and/or lemon-yellow.
They must be characteristic of the variety and/or commercial type.5 Slight defects may be allowed provided that these do not affect the general appearance of the produce, the quality, the keeping quality or its presentation in the package. Scuffing is allowed on:
  • quarters and all pieces,
  • halves, provided it covers no more than 20% of the surface area of the skin.
Commercial type: Walnut kernels in each package are of the similar general type and appearance and/or belong to a mix of varieties officially defined by the producing country.
(iii) Class II
The kernels may be designated by a commercial name, provided that the class is also expressed in the marking.
This class includes kernels which do not qualify for inclusion in the higher classes, but satisfy the minimum requirements specified above. Walnut kernels in this class must be of a colour not darker than dark brown. Darker kernels may be marketed in this class, provided the colour is indicated on the package. Defects may be allowed, provided that the walnut kernels retain their essential characteristics as regards general appearance, quality, keeping quality and presentation.
This class also includes mixtures of kernels of different colours and designated in the marking by the words ‘mixed colours’
Scuffing is not considered as a defect.
III. PROVISIONS CONCERNING SIZING (STYLES)
Walnut kernels are classified by style as follows:
  • halves: kernels separated into two more or less equal and intact parts;
  • quarters: kernels separated lengthways into four more or less equal pieces;
  • large pieces: portions smaller than a “chipped kernel”6 but larger than a “broken piece”;
  • broken pieces: portions of kernels which can pass through a 8mm sizing screen but not through a 3mm sizing screen;
  • large pieces and halves: a mixture of kernels corresponding to the styles large pieces and halves of which the proportion of halves may be specified in the marking.
A “chipped kernel” means a portion representing at least three-quarters of a “half”.
The different styles are represented in the Annex relating to colour, shape and size.
In addition to the designation of the style in the marking, an indication of the number of pieces per kg may be given optionally. 
IV. PROVISIONS CONCERNING TOLERANCES
Tolerances in respect of quality, colour and type shall be allowed in each package for produce not satisfying the requirements of the class indicated.
A. Quality and colour tolerances
Defects alloweda Tolerances allowed (per cent by weight of kernels)
  Extra Class I Class II
(1) Kernels not satisfying the minimum requirements, which include not more than: 4 6 8
- Rotten kernels 0.5 1b 2b
- Mouldy kernels 0.5 1b 2b
- Shell fragments or foreign matter 0.1 0.1 0.1
(2) Kernels darker in colour, 8 9 10
(3) Scuffing (halves only) 10 10 -
The definitions of terms and defects are listed in the Annex of this document.
Reservation of Poland in favour of a tolerance not exceeding 0.5 per cent.
B. Mineral impurities
Not greater than 1g/kg acid insoluble ash
C. Size tolerances (styles)
For all styles, a minimum percentage of kernels corresponding to the style indicated in the marking is required and a maximum percentage by weight of kernels different from the style indicated is tolerated:
Style Minimum percentage and tolerances allowed (per cent by weight of kernels)
  Halves Chipped kernels Quarters Large pieces Broken pieces Fragments
Halves 85a 15b 5c 1c 1c
Quarters     85a 15b 5c 1c
Large pieces       85a 15b 1c
Broken pieces       10b 90a 1d
Large pieces and halves 20 b     65a 15b 1c
  • Minimum percentage
  • Tolerances allowed
  • Included in 15% tolerance
  • Included in 10% tolerance 
V. PROVISIONS CONCERNING PRESENTATION
A. Uniformity
The contents of each package may be uniform and contain only kernels of the same origin, crop year, quality, style and when applicable of the same variety and commercial style.
Uniformity of colour is compulsory for Extra Class and Class I.
However, with regard to shape, “halves” which pass through a 15 mm mesh and “chipped kernels” may be included without limitation in consignments of “large pieces”.
The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of the entire contents.
B. Packaging
Walnut kernels must be packed in such a way as to protect the produce properly.
If wooden packaging is used, the produce must be separated from the bottom, sides and lid by paper or suitable protective material.
The materials used inside the package must be new, clean and of a quality such as to avoid causing any external or internal damage to the produce. The use of materials and particularly of paper or stamps bearing trade specifications is allowed provided that the printing or labelling has been done with non-toxic ink or glue.
Kernels may be packed in airtight sealed containers, in a vacuum or in an inert gas.
C. Presentation
Kernels must be presented:
In small unit packages of uniform weight intended for sale directly to the consumer.
The regulations of certain importing countries require compliance with a specific range of net weights for closed packages.
Packaged in bulk.
VI. PROVISIONS CONCERNING MARKING
Each package must bear the following particulars in letters grouped on the same side, legibly and indelibly marked and visible from the outside:
A. Identification
Packer ) Name and address or
and/or ) officially issued or
Dispatcher ) accepted code mark8
The national legislation of a number of European countries requires the explicit declaration of the name and address.
B. Nature of produce
  • Walnut kernels.
  • Name of the variety or commercial type for AExtra@ class and class I where applicable (optional for class II).
C. Origin of produce
Country of origin and, optionally, district where grown, or the national, regional or local place name.
D. Commercial specifications
  • Class and optionally a commercial name; the words Amixed colours@ in class II where applicable;
  • Style (Ahalves@, Aquarters@, Alarge pieces@, Abroken pieces@ or Alarge pieces and halves@) and optionally the number of pieces per kg;
  • Crop year optional, mandatory according to the legislation of the importing country;
  • Net weight;
  • Best before followed by the date (optional).
E. Official control mark (optional)
This standard was first published in 1983
Adopted as a revised UNECE Standard 2001
Alignment with the Standard Layout 2003
ANNEX: DEFINITION OF TERMS AND DEFECTS FOR WALNUT KERNELS
Based on Annex III of the Standard Layout
Any defect adversely affecting the appearance or edibility of the kernel including:
Fragments: Kernel and skin fragments which can pass through a sizing screen of 3 mm diameter.
Shell: Outer shell and/or woody partition from between the halves of the kernel (internal central partition), and any fragments of either.
Shrivelled kernels: Kernel which is seriously shrunken, wrinkled and tough.
Mould: Mould filaments visible to the naked eye.
Decay: Significant decomposition caused by the action of micro-organisms.
Insect damage: Visible damage caused by insects or other animal parasites the presence of dead insects or insect debris.
Foreign matter: Any matter or material not usually associated with the product.
Mineral impurities: Acid insoluble ash.
Rancidity: Oxidation of lipids or free fatty acid production producing a disagreeable flavour.
Foreign smell or taste: Any odour or flavour that is not characteristic of the product.
 
 
European Banned Bureau of Indian Standards

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