Emerging Technologies and information needs to be taken to the door steps of all
the stakeholders within Agriculture and Food Processing domain and in particular
to the door steps of the farmers Despite the numerous technologies available now,
the main problem in boosting crop production with quality produce is the absence
of proper dissemination of this information to the farmer.
*Note – The information provided in the portal has been prepared by experts to the
best of their knowledge. However, the usage of information provided under the respective
sections is only an indication/generic and the user should make his own judgement
for the usage and efreshindia shall not be responsible for any loss/damage/issues
arising out of usage of the information by the user/member.
Agriculture Profile - India
- Agriculture in India is one of the most important sectors of its economy. One of
the biggest success stories of independent India is the rapid strides made in the
field of agriculture. From a nation dependent on food imports to feed its population,
India today is not only self-sufficient in grain production but also able to feed
the rest of the world.
Let us have a look at the statistics Demand - Supplies Trends and projection of
Food in India Prepared by ICRIER
1) Projected Domestic Demand and Supply of food in India
The above projections made considering that the economy grows at 8% per annum
2) India share in the worlds food production :
According to the FAO, India topsin the production of one eighth of all agri-commodities
in the world like Mango, Castor seed, Banana, Lemons etc.
- Contributes to almost 18% of its national
GDP (about 5% of national GDP from horticulture) while about 70% of its population
is engaged in the agricultural food chain
- Large irrigated area (57 mill. acres
v/v USA's 60 mill. acres versus the global 1382 million hectares) and diverse
agro-climatic zones (with the consequent potential to raise three crops annually)
can catapult India into one of the leading players in world food trade.
- Ranks first
in world production of Mango, Pomegranate, Cashew
- Stands second globally in the production
of fruits and vegetables (170 million tones)
- Fruits & vegetables (of Horticulture
crops) occupy about 65% of area under cultivation (91 million hectares – next to
China) and 90% of horticulture production
- Growth over a sixteen year period in
terms of production of fruits (million tones)has grown at 129% while production
of vegetables has grown over 125% (1991-‘92 to 2007-'08)
- Fruits account for 13% of global production
from 12% of area under cultivation.
- Accounts for 14% of global production
of vegetables from merely 14% of area under cultivation
- Exports of cashew stood at Rs. 269.27
crore in December 2009 (During the period April –December 2009 – 82053 tones valued
at Rs. 2316.44 crore were exported).
- Plenty of opportunities in processing,
storage & logistics to minimise post harvest losses in fruits–vegetables which
- Several multinational entities (PepsiCo,
Tesco, Wal-Mart etc.) keen on India as a sourcing hub.
- Largest producer, consumer & exporter
of spices (Rs. Cr. 464 or $100 million for 39 thousand tones during the November
- Large global producer of food grains
– about 234 Mill. tones.
- Exports of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable
have grown to about Rs. Two Thousand Crores with the top rung occupied by Cashew
at US$ Million 533 compared to the world trade at US$ Million 1690.
Source: FAO Statistics (2007)
Population & economy growing, but the growth in Food supply not matching , Action
plan in place ?
India is a leader in many of the food commodities and therefore the responsibility
of India is to feed its own population and also to feed the rest of the world.
"Let all of us contribute to yet to another Green Revolution elevating the India’s
position in the world’s stage"
- Efresh made effort in explaining the overall agricultural scenario in India, which
will be useful information to the user in order to better understand the position
Good Agriculture Practices Manual(FAO)
Good Agriculture Practices
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a part of United Nations, specialized
in aspects related to food quality and safety, along the different stages of production,
harvest, post-harvest handling, storage, transport, processing and distribution
of food. FAO adheres to the food chain approach in managing food safety and quality
as a recognition of the responsibility of all actors in the food chain for the supply
of food that is safe, healthy and nutritious.
- In order to maintain the food quality,
safety and nutrition, FAO has published a manual on Good Agricultural Practices.
- eFresh reproduced this manual for the
benefit of the farmers and other stakeholders and every one can access this section
free of cost . No charges are collected from the users for using the information.
- eFresh acknowledges the important role
played by FAO/WHO in formulating guidelines in production of safe and quality food
Consumers demand a higher quality of food, not only in terms of food composition
(i.e. nutritional composition of the product) but also in safety.
- In order to meet the objectives of production
of safe and quality food, the governments and the retailers , have demanded implementation
of food safety standards as laid down by them in the production and distribution
- These standards are referred to as certification
- Authorised certification bodies will
assess the organizations on the implementation of these standards and award certificates.
- Questions about certification
- Pre-farm gate certification schemes
- Post-farm gate cerification schemes
eFresh has made an attempt to provide important and informative publications on
agriculture and food safety and quality in this section broadly categorized as
1) Food Safety & Quality Publications
Food safety is a fundamental public health concern. The Food Safety and Quality
has become an area of priority and necessity for consumers, retailers, manufacturers
and regulators. Changing global patterns of food production, international trade,
technology, public expectations for health protection and many other factors have
created a huge demand for food safety and quality. Here are a few publications on
food safety and quality with the following heads.
Efresh acknowledges the important role played by FAO/WHO in formulating guidelines/publishing
important documents in production of safe and quality food.
The publications under this section covers various publications on food and agriculture,
which the users can access free of cost. Anybody without being a member can access
the portal for this information .
- This will expose the user/member to
a vast library of knowledge and information and shall be handy to the user/member
in his/her farming practices or business.
Farm Tools and Machinery
The productivity from Agriculture farms largely depends on the availability of farm
labor. However, recent migration of farm labour to cities for better employment
opportunities is adversely affecting the supply of workers for farming activities.
There is urgent need to focus on farm mechanization through introduction of new
Tools/ Machines for timely handling of the farm activities with reduced dependency
on the farm labor.
New Farm Tool and machines will also facilitate enhanced productivity and quality
of the produce.
- eFresh has made efforts in collecting
the information from the institutions and also from the experts across India. eFresh
is also in the process of collecting the information from the manufacturers, who
are specialized in the agricultural machinery across the world.
- For better understanding of the machinery,
efresh has provided the photograph of the machine along with approximate price as
indicated by the supplier.
- eFresh is not involved neither in the
negotiation of commercial transaction nor recommending the particular machine/tool
for particular crop. It is for the user to make his own assessment for purchase
of machinery and to make his own enquiries in the market about the technical competency
of the machinery / Tools etc and its suitability for his operations.
- In case the user is interested to have
the details of manufacturers for the respective sections, then he should visit “Manufacturers-Farm
tools and Machinery” under commercial section
Food Safety & Quality
Effective national food control systems are essential for the production of safe
and quality food in order to protect the health of the consumers. considerable obligations
are placed on both importing and exporting countries to strengthen their food control
systems across the food chain.
- Consumers are taking unprecedented interest
in the way food is produced, processed and marketed, and are increasingly calling
for their Governments to accept greater responsibility for food safety and consumer
- Efresh made an effort for creating awareness
of various stake holders in agri and food domain, on various internationally recognized
- Many stake holders are not aware of
preparing the food safety quality manual meeting the requirements of the respective
standards for implemention.
- Efresh made an effort in preparing a
food safety quality manual-Generic in nature, so that the users c an understand
the basic structure of the manual and its minimum requirements to be addressed.
- The users can use this structure as
a first step for adoption and then the organization need to document the practices
/processes being implemented in it for production of product.
Good Agricultural Practices
Good Agricultural Practices are a set of requirements to apply for on-farm production
and post-production processes, resulting in safe production of food by ensuring
sustainable and commercial viability of Agricultural production and environmental
GAPs may be applied to a wide range of farming systems and at different scales.
They are applied through sustainable agricultural methods, such as integrated pest
management, integrated fertilizer management etc. They rely on four principles:
- Economically and efficiently produce
sufficient safe and nutritious food
- Sustain and enhance natural resources;
- Maintain viable farming enterprises
and contribute to sustainable livelihoods;
- Meet cultural and social demands of
- Sustain Environmental protection
1) Global GAP
The GLOBALG.A.P standard is primarily designed to reassure consumers about how food
is produced on the farm by minimizing detrimental environmental impacts of farming
operations, reducing the use of chemical inputs and ensuring a responsible approach
to workers health and safety.
- GLOBALG.A.P serves as a practical manual
for Good Agricultural Practice (G.A.P.) anywhere in the world.
- With the increasing awareness amongst
the consumers about food safety and quality, it has been found necessary to implement
Global GAP you can find more information in the presentation.
- GlobalGAP was setup initially by European
Retailers and other stake holders as voluntarily standard for the certification
of production processes of Agricultural products around the globe
- There are about 1,02,267 GlobalGAP certificates
issued around the world as of April’ 2010 as against only 1989 in India.
- GlobalGAP made good effort in bringing
out this scheme an Efresh acknowledges the important role played by GlobalGAP in
production of safe and quality primary produce around the globe
- The farms can be certify against the
global standards by approved agencies as listed in the GlobalGAP website. For more
information visit www.globgalgap.org
2) Organic Farming
Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop
rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity
and control pests on a farm. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use
of manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators such as hormones,
food additives, and genetically modified organisms.
Cold Storage - Standards
India is the largest producer of fruits and second largest producer of vegetables
in the world. In spite of that per capita availability of fruits and vegetables
is quite low because of post harvest losses, which account for about 25% to 30%
of production. Besides, quality of a sizable quantity of produce also deteriorates
by the time it reaches the consumer.
This is mainly because of perishable nature of the produce, which requires a cold
chain arrangement to maintain the quality and extend the shelf life if consumption
is not meant immediately after harvest. In the absence of a cold storage and related
cold chain facilities, the farmers are being forced to sell their produce immediately
after harvest which results in glut situations and low price realization.
Efresh reproduced the Technical standards published by National Horticulture Board.
Any entrepreneur interested in setting up the cold storage unit, must construct
theunit meeting the requriemetns of these technical standards in order to avail
the financial benefits.
Plant Protection Chemicals
Plants are a part of the food chain and their growing features offer conducive growth
conditions for various pests and diseases.
In order to control or manage these pests and diseases at various growth stages
of crop life and during storage & transport too, many chemicals are used.
- The build-up in- and aftereffects on-
the human body of most such chemicals have led to the imposition of maximum residue
levels (MRLs) in the finished produce and its restricted use or a complete ban on
the use of the chemical in its various forms.
- This is the most important and sought
after subject since any improper use of chemicals may result complete loss of produce
to the farmers and also causing severe health issues. Therefore effort is made to
give elaborative information on the critical components.
Good Post Farm Practices
The information under this section includes, Good Post Farm Practices are a collection
of principles to apply for on-farm production and post-production processes, resulting
in safe and healthy food